PageChannel.java

/*
Copyright (c) 2005 Health Market Science, Inc.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
*/

package com.healthmarketscience.jackcess.impl;

import java.io.Flushable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.nio.ByteOrder;
import java.nio.channels.Channel;
import java.nio.channels.FileChannel;


/**
 * Reads and writes individual pages in a database file
 * @author Tim McCune
 */
public class PageChannel implements Channel, Flushable {
  
  static final int INVALID_PAGE_NUMBER = -1;

  static final ByteOrder DEFAULT_BYTE_ORDER = ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN;
  
  /** invalid page header, used when deallocating old pages.  data pages
      generally have 4 interesting bytes at the beginning which we want to
      reset. */
  private static final byte[] INVALID_PAGE_BYTE_HEADER =
    new byte[]{PageTypes.INVALID, (byte)0, (byte)0, (byte)0};
  
  /** Global usage map always lives on page 1 */
  static final int PAGE_GLOBAL_USAGE_MAP = 1;
  /** Global usage map always lives at row 0 */
  static final int ROW_GLOBAL_USAGE_MAP = 0;
  
  /** Channel containing the database */
  private final FileChannel _channel;
  /** whether or not the _channel should be closed by this class */
  private final boolean _closeChannel;
  /** Format of the database in the channel */
  private final JetFormat _format;
  /** whether or not to force all writes to disk immediately */
  private final  boolean _autoSync;
  /** buffer used when deallocating old pages.  data pages generally have 4
      interesting bytes at the beginning which we want to reset. */
  private final ByteBuffer _invalidPageBytes =
    ByteBuffer.wrap(INVALID_PAGE_BYTE_HEADER);
  /** dummy buffer used when allocating new pages */
  private final ByteBuffer _forceBytes = ByteBuffer.allocate(1);
  /** Tracks free pages in the database. */
  private UsageMap _globalUsageMap;
  /** handler for the current database encoding type */
  private CodecHandler _codecHandler = DefaultCodecProvider.DUMMY_HANDLER;
  /** temp page buffer used when pages cannot be partially encoded */
  private TempPageHolder _fullPageEncodeBufferH;
  private TempBufferHolder _tempDecodeBufferH;
  private int _writeCount;
  
  /**
   * Only used by unit tests
   */
  protected PageChannel(boolean testing) {
    if(!testing) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException();
    }
    _channel = null;
    _closeChannel = false;
    _format = JetFormat.VERSION_4;
    _autoSync = false;
  }

  /**
   * @param channel Channel containing the database
   * @param format Format of the database in the channel
   */
  public PageChannel(FileChannel channel, boolean closeChannel,
                     JetFormat format, boolean autoSync)
    throws IOException
  {
    _channel = channel;
    _closeChannel = closeChannel;
    _format = format;
    _autoSync = autoSync;
  }

  /**
   * Does second-stage initialization, must be called after construction.
   */
  public void initialize(DatabaseImpl database, CodecProvider codecProvider)
    throws IOException
  {
    // initialize page en/decoding support
    _codecHandler = codecProvider.createHandler(this, database.getCharset());
    if(!_codecHandler.canEncodePartialPage()) {
      _fullPageEncodeBufferH =
        TempPageHolder.newHolder(TempBufferHolder.Type.SOFT);
    }
    if(!_codecHandler.canDecodeInline()) {
      _tempDecodeBufferH = TempBufferHolder.newHolder(
          TempBufferHolder.Type.SOFT, true);
    }

    // note the global usage map is a special map where any page outside of
    // the current range is assumed to be "on"
    _globalUsageMap = UsageMap.read(database, PAGE_GLOBAL_USAGE_MAP,
                                    ROW_GLOBAL_USAGE_MAP, true);
  }
  
  public JetFormat getFormat() {
    return _format;
  }

  public boolean isAutoSync() {
    return _autoSync;
  }

  /**
   * Begins a "logical" write operation.  See {@link #finishWrite} for more
   * details.
   */
  public void startWrite() {
    ++_writeCount;
  }

  /**
   * Begins an exclusive "logical" write operation (throws an exception if
   * another write operation is outstanding).  See {@link #finishWrite} for
   * more details.
   */
  public void startExclusiveWrite() {
    if(_writeCount != 0) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "Another write operation is currently in progress");
    }
    startWrite();
  }

  /**
   * Completes a "logical" write operation.  This method should be called in
   * finally block which wraps a logical write operation (which is preceded by
   * a {@link #startWrite} call).  Logical write operations may be nested.  If
   * the database is configured for "auto-sync", the channel will be flushed
   * when the outermost operation is complete,
   */
  public void finishWrite() throws IOException {
    assertWriting();
    if((--_writeCount == 0) && _autoSync) {
      flush();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Returns {@code true} if a logical write operation is in progress, {@code
   * false} otherwise.
   */
  public boolean isWriting() {
    return(_writeCount > 0);
  }

  /**
   * Asserts that a write operation is in progress.
   */
  private void assertWriting() {
    if(!isWriting()) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("No write operation in progress");
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Returns the next page number based on the given file size.
   */
  private int getNextPageNumber(long size) {
    return (int)(size / getFormat().PAGE_SIZE);
  }

  /**
   * Returns the offset for a page within the file.
   */
  private long getPageOffset(int pageNumber) {
    return((long) pageNumber * (long) getFormat().PAGE_SIZE);
  }
  
  /**
   * Validates that the given pageNumber is valid for this database.
   */
  private void validatePageNumber(int pageNumber)
    throws IOException
  {
    int nextPageNumber = getNextPageNumber(_channel.size());
    if((pageNumber <= INVALID_PAGE_NUMBER) || (pageNumber >= nextPageNumber)) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("invalid page number " + pageNumber);
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * @param buffer Buffer to read the page into
   * @param pageNumber Number of the page to read in (starting at 0)
   */
  public void readPage(ByteBuffer buffer, int pageNumber)
    throws IOException
  {
    validatePageNumber(pageNumber);

    ByteBuffer inPage = buffer;
    ByteBuffer outPage = buffer;
    if((pageNumber != 0) && !_codecHandler.canDecodeInline()) {
      inPage = _tempDecodeBufferH.getPageBuffer(this);
      outPage.clear();
    }

    inPage.clear();
    int bytesRead = _channel.read(
        inPage, (long) pageNumber * (long) getFormat().PAGE_SIZE);
    inPage.flip();
    if(bytesRead != getFormat().PAGE_SIZE) {
      throw new IOException("Failed attempting to read " +
                            getFormat().PAGE_SIZE + " bytes from page " +
                            pageNumber + ", only read " + bytesRead);
    }

    if(pageNumber == 0) {
      // de-mask header (note, page 0 never has additional encoding)
      applyHeaderMask(buffer);
    } else {
      _codecHandler.decodePage(inPage, outPage, pageNumber);
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Write a page to disk
   * @param page Page to write
   * @param pageNumber Page number to write the page to
   */
  public void writePage(ByteBuffer page, int pageNumber) throws IOException {
    writePage(page, pageNumber, 0);
  }
  
  /**
   * Write a page (or part of a page) to disk
   * @param page Page to write
   * @param pageNumber Page number to write the page to
   * @param pageOffset offset within the page at which to start writing the
   *                   page data
   */
  public void writePage(ByteBuffer page, int pageNumber, int pageOffset)
    throws IOException
  {
    assertWriting();
    validatePageNumber(pageNumber);
    
    page.rewind().position(pageOffset);

    int writeLen = page.remaining();
    if((writeLen + pageOffset) > getFormat().PAGE_SIZE) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "Page buffer is too large, size " + (writeLen + pageOffset));
    }
    
    ByteBuffer encodedPage = page;
    if(pageNumber == 0) {
      // re-mask header
      applyHeaderMask(page);
    } else {

      if(!_codecHandler.canEncodePartialPage()) {
        if((pageOffset > 0) && (writeLen < getFormat().PAGE_SIZE)) {

          // current codec handler cannot encode part of a page, so need to
          // copy the modified part into the current page contents in a temp
          // buffer so that we can encode the entire page
          ByteBuffer fullPage = _fullPageEncodeBufferH.setPage(
              this, pageNumber);

          // copy the modified part to the full page
          fullPage.position(pageOffset);
          fullPage.put(page);
          fullPage.rewind();

          // reset so we can write the whole page
          page = fullPage;
          pageOffset = 0;
          writeLen = getFormat().PAGE_SIZE;

        } else {

          _fullPageEncodeBufferH.possiblyInvalidate(pageNumber, null);
        }
      }

      // re-encode page
      encodedPage = _codecHandler.encodePage(page, pageNumber, pageOffset);

      // reset position/limit in case they were affected by encoding
      encodedPage.position(pageOffset).limit(pageOffset + writeLen);
    }

    try {
      _channel.write(encodedPage, (getPageOffset(pageNumber) + pageOffset));
    } finally {
      if(pageNumber == 0) {
        // de-mask header
        applyHeaderMask(page);
      }
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Allocates a new page in the database.  Data in the page is undefined
   * until it is written in a call to {@link #writePage(ByteBuffer,int)}.
   */
  public int allocateNewPage() throws IOException {
    assertWriting();

    // this will force the file to be extended with mostly undefined bytes
    long size = _channel.size();
    if(size >= getFormat().MAX_DATABASE_SIZE) {
      throw new IOException("Database is at maximum size " +
                            getFormat().MAX_DATABASE_SIZE);
    }
    if((size % getFormat().PAGE_SIZE) != 0L) {
      throw new IOException("Database corrupted, file size " + size +
                            " is not multiple of page size " +
                            getFormat().PAGE_SIZE);
    }
    
    _forceBytes.rewind();
    
    // push the buffer to the end of the page, so that a full page's worth of
    // data is written
    int pageOffset = (getFormat().PAGE_SIZE - _forceBytes.remaining());
    long offset = size + pageOffset;
    int pageNumber = getNextPageNumber(size);

    // since we are just allocating page space at this point and not writing
    // meaningful data, we do _not_ encode the page.
    _channel.write(_forceBytes, offset);

    _globalUsageMap.removePageNumber(pageNumber);
    return pageNumber;
  }

  /**
   * Deallocate a previously used page in the database.
   */
  public void deallocatePage(int pageNumber) throws IOException {
    assertWriting();

    validatePageNumber(pageNumber);
    
    // don't write the whole page, just wipe out the header (which should be
    // enough to let us know if we accidentally try to use an invalid page)
    _invalidPageBytes.rewind();
    _channel.write(_invalidPageBytes, getPageOffset(pageNumber));
    
    _globalUsageMap.addPageNumber(pageNumber);  //force is done here
  }
  
  /**
   * @return A newly-allocated buffer that can be passed to readPage
   */
  public ByteBuffer createPageBuffer() {
    return createBuffer(getFormat().PAGE_SIZE);
  }

  /**
   * @return A newly-allocated buffer of the given size and DEFAULT_BYTE_ORDER
   *         byte order
   */
  public static ByteBuffer createBuffer(int size) {
    return createBuffer(size, DEFAULT_BYTE_ORDER);
  }
  
  /**
   * @return A newly-allocated buffer of the given size and byte order
   */
  public static ByteBuffer createBuffer(int size, ByteOrder order) {
    return ByteBuffer.allocate(size).order(order);
  }
  
  public void flush() throws IOException {
    _channel.force(true);
  }
  
  public void close() throws IOException {
    flush();
    if(_closeChannel) {
      _channel.close();
    }
  }
  
  public boolean isOpen() {
    return _channel.isOpen();
  }

  /**
   * Applies the XOR mask to the database header in the given buffer.
   */
  private void applyHeaderMask(ByteBuffer buffer) {
      // de/re-obfuscate the header
      byte[] headerMask = _format.HEADER_MASK;
      for(int idx = 0; idx < headerMask.length; ++idx) {
        int pos = idx + _format.OFFSET_MASKED_HEADER;
        byte b = (byte)(buffer.get(pos) ^ headerMask[idx]);
        buffer.put(pos, b);
      }
  }
  
  /**
   * @return a duplicate of the current buffer narrowed to the given position
   *         and limit.  mark will be set at the current position.
   */
  public static ByteBuffer narrowBuffer(ByteBuffer buffer, int position,
                                        int limit)
  {
    return (ByteBuffer)buffer.duplicate()
      .order(buffer.order())
      .clear()
      .limit(limit)
      .position(position)
      .mark();
  }

  /**
   * Returns a ByteBuffer wrapping the given bytes and configured with the
   * default byte order.
   */
  public static ByteBuffer wrap(byte[] bytes) {
    return ByteBuffer.wrap(bytes).order(DEFAULT_BYTE_ORDER);
  }
}