IndexPageCache.java

/*
Copyright (c) 2008 Health Market Science, Inc.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
*/

package com.healthmarketscience.jackcess.impl;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.lang.ref.Reference;
import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
import java.util.AbstractList;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.RandomAccess;

import static com.healthmarketscience.jackcess.impl.IndexData.*;
import org.apache.commons.lang.builder.ToStringBuilder;

/**
 * Manager of the index pages for a IndexData.
 * @author James Ahlborn
 */
public class IndexPageCache
{
  private enum UpdateType {
    ADD, REMOVE, REPLACE;
  }

  /** max number of pages to cache (unless a write operation is in
      progress) */
  private static final int MAX_CACHE_SIZE = 25;
  
  /** the index whose pages this cache is managing */
  private final IndexData _indexData;
  /** the root page for the index */
  private DataPageMain _rootPage;
  /** the currently loaded pages for this index, pageNumber -> page */
  private final Map<Integer, DataPageMain> _dataPages =
    new LinkedHashMap<Integer, DataPageMain>(16, 0.75f, true) {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 0L;
    @Override
    protected boolean removeEldestEntry(Map.Entry<Integer, DataPageMain> e) {
      // only purge when the size is too big and a logical write operation is
      // not in progress (while an update is happening, the pages can be in
      // flux and removing pages from the cache can cause problems)
      if((size() > MAX_CACHE_SIZE) && !getPageChannel().isWriting()) {
        purgeOldPages();
      }
      return false;
    }
  };
  /** the currently modified index pages */
  private final List<CacheDataPage> _modifiedPages =
    new ArrayList<CacheDataPage>();
  
  public IndexPageCache(IndexData indexData) {
    _indexData = indexData;
  }

  public IndexData getIndexData() {
    return _indexData;
  }
  
  public PageChannel getPageChannel() {
    return getIndexData().getPageChannel();
  }
  
  /**
   * Sets the root page for this index, must be called before normal usage.
   *
   * @param pageNumber the root page number
   */
  public void setRootPageNumber(int pageNumber) throws IOException {
    _rootPage = getDataPage(pageNumber);
    // root page has no parent
    _rootPage.initParentPage(INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER, false);
  }
  
  /**
   * Writes any outstanding changes for this index to the file.
   */
  public void write()
    throws IOException
  {
    // first discard any empty pages
    handleEmptyPages();
    // next, handle any necessary page splitting
    preparePagesForWriting();
    // finally, write all the modified pages (which are not being deleted)
    writeDataPages();
    // after we write everything, we can purge our cache if necessary
    if(_dataPages.size() > MAX_CACHE_SIZE) {
      purgeOldPages();
    }
  }

  /**
   * Handles any modified pages which are empty as the first pass during a
   * {@link #write} call.  All empty pages are removed from the _modifiedPages
   * collection by this method.
   */
  private void handleEmptyPages() throws IOException
  {
    for(Iterator<CacheDataPage> iter = _modifiedPages.iterator();
        iter.hasNext(); ) {
      CacheDataPage cacheDataPage = iter.next();
      if(cacheDataPage._extra._entryView.isEmpty()) {
        if(!cacheDataPage._main.isRoot()) {
          deleteDataPage(cacheDataPage);
        } else {
          writeDataPage(cacheDataPage);
        }
        iter.remove();
      }
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Prepares any non-empty modified pages for writing as the second pass
   * during a {@link #write} call.  Updates entry prefixes, promotes/demotes
   * tail pages, and splits pages as needed.
   */
  private void preparePagesForWriting() throws IOException
  {
    boolean splitPages = false;
    int maxPageEntrySize = getIndexData().getMaxPageEntrySize();

    // we need to continue looping through all the pages until we do not split
    // any pages (because a split may cascade up the tree)
    do {
      splitPages = false;

      // we might be adding to this list while iterating, so we can't use an
      // iterator
      for(int i = 0; i < _modifiedPages.size(); ++i) {

        CacheDataPage cacheDataPage = _modifiedPages.get(i);

        if(!cacheDataPage.isLeaf()) {
          // see if we need to update any child tail status
          DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
          int size = cacheDataPage._extra._entryView.size();
          if(dpMain.hasChildTail()) {
            if(size == 1) {
              demoteTail(cacheDataPage);
            } 
          } else {
            if(size > 1) {
              promoteTail(cacheDataPage);
            }
          }
        }
        
        // look for pages with more entries than can fit on a page
        if(cacheDataPage.getTotalEntrySize() > maxPageEntrySize) {

          // make sure the prefix is up-to-date (this may have gotten
          // discarded by one of the update entry methods)
          cacheDataPage._extra.updateEntryPrefix();

          // now, see if the page will fit when compressed
          if(cacheDataPage.getCompressedEntrySize() > maxPageEntrySize) {
            // need to split this page
            splitPages = true;
            splitDataPage(cacheDataPage);
          }
        }
      }
      
    } while(splitPages);
  }

  /**
   * Writes any non-empty modified pages as the last pass during a
   * {@link #write} call.  Clears the _modifiedPages collection when finised.
   */
  private void writeDataPages() throws IOException
  {
    for(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage : _modifiedPages) {
      if(cacheDataPage._extra._entryView.isEmpty()) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                "Unexpected empty page " + cacheDataPage));
      }
      writeDataPage(cacheDataPage);
    }
    _modifiedPages.clear();
  }

  /**
   * Returns a CacheDataPage for the given page number, may be {@code null} if
   * the given page number is invalid.  Loads the given page if necessary.
   */
  public CacheDataPage getCacheDataPage(Integer pageNumber)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain main = getDataPage(pageNumber);
    return((main != null) ? new CacheDataPage(main) : null);
  }
  
  /**
   * Returns a DataPageMain for the given page number, may be {@code null} if
   * the given page number is invalid.  Loads the given page if necessary.
   */
  private DataPageMain getDataPage(Integer pageNumber)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dataPage = _dataPages.get(pageNumber);
    if((dataPage == null) && (pageNumber > INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER)) {
      dataPage = readDataPage(pageNumber)._main;
      _dataPages.put(pageNumber, dataPage);
    }
    return dataPage;
  }

  /**
   * Writes the given index page to the file.
   */
  private void writeDataPage(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    getIndexData().writeDataPage(cacheDataPage);

    // lastly, mark the page as no longer modified
    cacheDataPage._extra._modified = false;    
  }
  
  /**
   * Deletes the given index page from the file (clears the page).
   */
  private void deleteDataPage(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    // free this database page
    getPageChannel().deallocatePage(cacheDataPage._main._pageNumber);

    // discard from our cache
    _dataPages.remove(cacheDataPage._main._pageNumber);
    
    // lastly, mark the page as no longer modified
    cacheDataPage._extra._modified = false;    
  }
  
  /**
   * Reads the given index page from the file.
   */
  private CacheDataPage readDataPage(Integer pageNumber)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dataPage = new DataPageMain(pageNumber);
    DataPageExtra extra = new DataPageExtra();
    CacheDataPage cacheDataPage = new CacheDataPage(dataPage, extra);
    getIndexData().readDataPage(cacheDataPage);

    // associate the extra info with the main data page
    dataPage.setExtra(extra);
    
    return cacheDataPage;
  }  

  /**
   * Removes the entry with the given index from the given page.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page from which to remove the entry
   * @param entryIdx the index of the entry to remove
   */
  private Entry removeEntry(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage, int entryIdx)
    throws IOException
  {
    return updateEntry(cacheDataPage, entryIdx, null, UpdateType.REMOVE);
  }

  /**
   * Adds the entry to the given page at the given index.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page to which to add the entry
   * @param entryIdx the index at which to add the entry
   * @param newEntry the entry to add
   */
  private void addEntry(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage,
                        int entryIdx,
                        Entry newEntry)
    throws IOException
  {
    updateEntry(cacheDataPage, entryIdx, newEntry, UpdateType.ADD);
  }
  
  /**
   * Updates the entries on the given page according to the given updateType.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page to update
   * @param entryIdx the index at which to add/remove/replace the entry
   * @param newEntry the entry to add/replace
   * @param upType the type of update to make
   */
  private Entry updateEntry(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage,
                            int entryIdx,
                            Entry newEntry,
                            UpdateType upType)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = cacheDataPage._extra;

    if(newEntry != null) {
      validateEntryForPage(dpMain, newEntry);
    }

    // note, it's slightly ucky, but we need to load the parent page before we
    // start mucking with our entries because our parent may use our entries.
    CacheDataPage parentDataPage = (!dpMain.isRoot() ?
                                    new CacheDataPage(dpMain.getParentPage()) :
                                    null);
    
    Entry oldLastEntry = dpExtra._entryView.getLast();
    Entry oldEntry = null;
    int entrySizeDiff = 0;

    switch(upType) {
    case ADD:
      dpExtra._entryView.add(entryIdx, newEntry);
      entrySizeDiff += newEntry.size();
      break;

    case REPLACE:
      oldEntry = dpExtra._entryView.set(entryIdx, newEntry);
      entrySizeDiff += newEntry.size() - oldEntry.size();
      break;

    case REMOVE: {
      oldEntry = dpExtra._entryView.remove(entryIdx);
      entrySizeDiff -= oldEntry.size();
      break;
    }
    default:
      throw new RuntimeException(withErrorContext(
              "unknown update type " + upType));
    }

    boolean updateLast = (oldLastEntry != dpExtra._entryView.getLast());
    
    // child tail entry updates do not modify the page
    if(!updateLast || !dpMain.hasChildTail()) {
      dpExtra._totalEntrySize += entrySizeDiff;
      setModified(cacheDataPage);

      // for now, just clear the prefix, we'll fix it later
      dpExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
    }

    if(dpExtra._entryView.isEmpty()) {
      // this page is dead
      removeDataPage(parentDataPage, cacheDataPage, oldLastEntry);
      return oldEntry;
    }

    // determine if we need to update our parent page 
    if(!updateLast || dpMain.isRoot()) {
      // no parent
      return oldEntry;
    }

    // the update to the last entry needs to be propagated to our parent
    replaceParentEntry(parentDataPage, cacheDataPage, oldLastEntry);
    return oldEntry;
  }

  /**
   * Removes an index page which has become empty.  If this page is the root
   * page, just clears it.
   *
   * @param parentDataPage the parent of the removed page
   * @param cacheDataPage the page to remove
   * @param oldLastEntry the last entry for this page (before it was removed)
   */
  private void removeDataPage(CacheDataPage parentDataPage,
                              CacheDataPage cacheDataPage,
                              Entry oldLastEntry)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = cacheDataPage._extra;

    if(dpMain.hasChildTail()) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext("Still has child tail?"));
    }

    if(dpExtra._totalEntrySize != 0) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
              "Empty page but size is not 0? " + dpExtra._totalEntrySize + ", " +
              cacheDataPage));
    }
    
    if(dpMain.isRoot()) {
      // clear out this page (we don't actually remove it)
      dpExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
      // when the root page becomes empty, it becomes a leaf page again
      dpMain._leaf = true;
      return;
    }

    // remove this page from its parent page
    updateParentEntry(parentDataPage, cacheDataPage, oldLastEntry, null,
                      UpdateType.REMOVE);

    // remove this page from any next/prev pages
    removeFromPeers(cacheDataPage);
  }

  /**
   * Removes a now empty index page from its next and previous peers.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page to remove
   */
  private void removeFromPeers(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;

    Integer prevPageNumber = dpMain._prevPageNumber;
    Integer nextPageNumber = dpMain._nextPageNumber;
    
    DataPageMain prevMain = dpMain.getPrevPage();
    if(prevMain != null) {
      setModified(new CacheDataPage(prevMain));
      prevMain._nextPageNumber = nextPageNumber;
    }

    DataPageMain nextMain = dpMain.getNextPage();
    if(nextMain != null) {
      setModified(new CacheDataPage(nextMain));
      nextMain._prevPageNumber = prevPageNumber;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Adds an entry for the given child page to the given parent page.
   *
   * @param parentDataPage the parent page to which to add the entry
   * @param childDataPage the child from which to get the entry to add
   */
  private void addParentEntry(CacheDataPage parentDataPage,
                              CacheDataPage childDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageExtra childExtra = childDataPage._extra;
    updateParentEntry(parentDataPage, childDataPage, null,
                      childExtra._entryView.getLast(), UpdateType.ADD);
  }
  
  /**
   * Replaces the entry for the given child page in the given parent page.
   *
   * @param parentDataPage the parent page in which to replace the entry
   * @param childDataPage the child for which the entry is being replaced
   * @param oldEntry the old child entry for the child page
   */
  private void replaceParentEntry(CacheDataPage parentDataPage,
                                  CacheDataPage childDataPage,
                                  Entry oldEntry)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageExtra childExtra = childDataPage._extra;
    updateParentEntry(parentDataPage, childDataPage, oldEntry,
                      childExtra._entryView.getLast(), UpdateType.REPLACE);
  }
  
  /**
   * Updates the entry for the given child page in the given parent page
   * according to the given updateType.
   *
   * @param parentDataPage the parent page in which to update the entry
   * @param childDataPage the child for which the entry is being updated
   * @param oldEntry the old child entry to remove/replace
   * @param newEntry the new child entry to replace/add
   * @param upType the type of update to make
   */
  private void updateParentEntry(CacheDataPage parentDataPage,
                                 CacheDataPage childDataPage,
                                 Entry oldEntry, Entry newEntry,
                                 UpdateType upType)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain childMain = childDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra parentExtra = parentDataPage._extra;

    if(childMain.isTail() && (upType != UpdateType.REMOVE)) {
      // for add or replace, update the child tail info before updating the
      // parent entries
      updateParentTail(parentDataPage, childDataPage, upType);
    }

    if(oldEntry != null) {
      oldEntry = oldEntry.asNodeEntry(childMain._pageNumber);
    }
    if(newEntry != null) {
      newEntry = newEntry.asNodeEntry(childMain._pageNumber);
    }

    boolean expectFound = true;
    int idx = 0;
    
    switch(upType) {
    case ADD:
      expectFound = false;
      idx = parentExtra._entryView.find(newEntry);
      break;

    case REPLACE:
    case REMOVE:
      idx = parentExtra._entryView.find(oldEntry);
      break;
    
    default:
      throw new RuntimeException(withErrorContext(
              "unknown update type " + upType));
    }
        
    if(idx < 0) {
      if(expectFound) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
            "Could not find child entry in parent; childEntry " + oldEntry +
            "; parent " + parentDataPage));
      }
      idx = missingIndexToInsertionPoint(idx);
    } else {
      if(!expectFound) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
            "Unexpectedly found child entry in parent; childEntry " +
            newEntry + "; parent " + parentDataPage));
      }
    }
    updateEntry(parentDataPage, idx, newEntry, upType);

    if(childMain.isTail() && (upType == UpdateType.REMOVE)) {
      // for remove, update the child tail info after updating the parent
      // entries
      updateParentTail(parentDataPage, childDataPage, upType);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Updates the child tail info in the given parent page according to the
   * given updateType.
   *
   * @param parentDataPage the parent page in which to update the child tail
   * @param childDataPage the child to add/replace
   * @param upType the type of update to make
   */
  private void updateParentTail(CacheDataPage parentDataPage,
                                CacheDataPage childDataPage,
                                UpdateType upType)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain parentMain = parentDataPage._main;

    int newChildTailPageNumber =
      ((upType == UpdateType.REMOVE) ?
       INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER :
       childDataPage._main._pageNumber);
    if(!parentMain.isChildTailPageNumber(newChildTailPageNumber)) {
      setModified(parentDataPage);
      parentMain._childTailPageNumber = newChildTailPageNumber;
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Verifies that the given entry type (node/leaf) is valid for the given
   * page (node/leaf).
   *
   * @param dpMain the page to which the entry will be added
   * @param entry the entry being added
   * @throws IllegalStateException if the entry type does not match the page
   *         type
   */
  private void validateEntryForPage(DataPageMain dpMain, Entry entry) {
    if(dpMain._leaf != entry.isLeafEntry()) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
          "Trying to update page with wrong entry type; pageLeaf " +
          dpMain._leaf + ", entryLeaf " + entry.isLeafEntry()));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Splits an index page which has too many entries on it.
   *
   * @param origDataPage the page to split
   */
  private void splitDataPage(CacheDataPage origDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain origMain = origDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra origExtra = origDataPage._extra;

    setModified(origDataPage);
    
    int numEntries = origExtra._entries.size();
    if(numEntries < 2) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
              "Cannot split page with less than 2 entries " + origDataPage));
    }
    
    if(origMain.isRoot()) {
      // we can't split the root page directly, so we need to put another page
      // between the root page and its sub-pages, and then split that page.
      CacheDataPage newDataPage = nestRootDataPage(origDataPage);

      // now, split this new page instead
      origDataPage = newDataPage;
      origMain = newDataPage._main;
      origExtra = newDataPage._extra;
    }

    // note, it's slightly ucky, but we need to load the parent page before we
    // start mucking with our entries because our parent may use our entries.
    DataPageMain parentMain = origMain.getParentPage();
    CacheDataPage parentDataPage = new CacheDataPage(parentMain);
    
    // note, there are many, many ways this could be improved/tweaked.  for
    // now, we just want it to be functional...
    // so, we will naively move half the entries from one page to a new page.

    CacheDataPage newDataPage = allocateNewCacheDataPage(
        parentMain._pageNumber, origMain._leaf);
    DataPageMain newMain = newDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra newExtra = newDataPage._extra;
    
    List<Entry> headEntries =
      origExtra._entries.subList(0, ((numEntries + 1) / 2));

    // move first half of the entries from old page to new page (so we do not
    // need to muck with any tail entries)
    for(Entry headEntry : headEntries) {
      newExtra._totalEntrySize += headEntry.size();
      newExtra._entries.add(headEntry);
    }
    newExtra.setEntryView(newMain);

    // remove the moved entries from the old page
    headEntries.clear();
    origExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
    origExtra._totalEntrySize -= newExtra._totalEntrySize;

    // insert this new page between the old page and any previous page
    addToPeersBefore(newDataPage, origDataPage);
    
    if(!newMain._leaf) {
      // reparent the children pages of the new page
      reparentChildren(newDataPage);

      // if the children of this page are also node pages, then the next/prev
      // links should not cross parent boundaries (the leaf pages are linked
      // from beginning to end, but child node pages are only linked within
      // the same parent)
      DataPageMain childMain = newMain.getChildPage(
          newExtra._entryView.getLast());
      if(!childMain._leaf) {
        separateFromNextPeer(new CacheDataPage(childMain));
      }
    }

    // lastly, we need to add the new page to the parent page's entries
    addParentEntry(parentDataPage, newDataPage);
  }

  /**
   * Copies the current root page info into a new page and nests this page
   * under the root page.  This must be done when the root page needs to be
   * split.
   *
   * @param rootDataPage the root data page
   * 
   * @return the newly created page nested under the root page
   */
  private CacheDataPage nestRootDataPage(CacheDataPage rootDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain rootMain = rootDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra rootExtra = rootDataPage._extra;

    if(!rootMain.isRoot()) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(withErrorContext(
              "should be called with root, duh"));
    }
    
    CacheDataPage newDataPage =
      allocateNewCacheDataPage(rootMain._pageNumber, rootMain._leaf);
    DataPageMain newMain = newDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra newExtra = newDataPage._extra;

    // move entries to new page
    newMain._childTailPageNumber = rootMain._childTailPageNumber;
    newExtra._entries = rootExtra._entries;
    newExtra._entryPrefix = rootExtra._entryPrefix;
    newExtra._totalEntrySize = rootExtra._totalEntrySize;
    newExtra.setEntryView(newMain);

    if(!newMain._leaf) {
      // we need to re-parent all the child pages
      reparentChildren(newDataPage);
    }
      
    // clear the root page
    rootMain._leaf = false;
    rootMain._childTailPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
    rootExtra._entries = new ArrayList<Entry>();
    rootExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
    rootExtra._totalEntrySize = 0;
    rootExtra.setEntryView(rootMain);

    // add the new page as the first child of the root page
    addParentEntry(rootDataPage, newDataPage);

    return newDataPage;
  }
  
  /**
   * Allocates a new index page with the given parent page and type.
   *
   * @param parentPageNumber the parent page for the new page
   * @param isLeaf whether or not the new page is a leaf page
   *
   * @return the newly created page
   */
  private CacheDataPage allocateNewCacheDataPage(Integer parentPageNumber,
                                                 boolean isLeaf)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = new DataPageMain(getPageChannel().allocateNewPage());
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = new DataPageExtra();
    dpMain.initParentPage(parentPageNumber, false);
    dpMain._leaf = isLeaf;
    dpMain._prevPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
    dpMain._nextPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
    dpMain._childTailPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
    dpExtra._entries = new ArrayList<Entry>();
    dpExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
    dpMain.setExtra(dpExtra);

    // add to our page cache
    _dataPages.put(dpMain._pageNumber, dpMain);

    // update owned pages cache
    _indexData.addOwnedPage(dpMain._pageNumber);

    // needs to be written out
    CacheDataPage cacheDataPage = new CacheDataPage(dpMain, dpExtra);
    setModified(cacheDataPage);

    return cacheDataPage;
  }

  /**
   * Inserts the new page as a peer between the given original page and any
   * previous peer page.
   *
   * @param newDataPage the new index page
   * @param origDataPage the current index page
   */
  private void addToPeersBefore(CacheDataPage newDataPage,
                                CacheDataPage origDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain origMain = origDataPage._main;
    DataPageMain newMain = newDataPage._main;

    DataPageMain prevMain = origMain.getPrevPage();

    newMain._nextPageNumber = origMain._pageNumber;
    newMain._prevPageNumber = origMain._prevPageNumber;
    origMain._prevPageNumber = newMain._pageNumber;
    
    if(prevMain != null) {
      setModified(new CacheDataPage(prevMain));
      prevMain._nextPageNumber = newMain._pageNumber;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Separates the given index page from any next peer page.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the index page to be separated
   */
  private void separateFromNextPeer(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;

    setModified(cacheDataPage);

    DataPageMain nextMain = dpMain.getNextPage();
    setModified(new CacheDataPage(nextMain));

    nextMain._prevPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
    dpMain._nextPageNumber = INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER;
  }
  
  /**
   * Sets the parent info for the children of the given page to the given
   * page.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page whose children need to be updated
   */
  private void reparentChildren(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = cacheDataPage._extra;

    // note, the "parent" page number is not actually persisted, so we do not
    // need to mark any updated pages as modified.  for the same reason, we
    // don't need to load the pages if not already loaded
    for(Entry entry : dpExtra._entryView) {
      Integer childPageNumber = entry.getSubPageNumber();
      DataPageMain childMain = _dataPages.get(childPageNumber);
      if(childMain != null) {
        childMain.setParentPage(dpMain._pageNumber,
                                dpMain.isChildTailPageNumber(childPageNumber));
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Makes the tail entry of the given page a normal entry on that page, done
   * when there is only one entry left on a page, and it is the tail.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page whose tail must be updated
   */
  private void demoteTail(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    // there's only one entry on the page, and it's the tail.  make it a
    // normal entry
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = cacheDataPage._extra;

    setModified(cacheDataPage);
    
    DataPageMain tailMain = dpMain.getChildTailPage();
    CacheDataPage tailDataPage = new CacheDataPage(tailMain);

    // move the tail entry to the last normal entry
    updateParentTail(cacheDataPage, tailDataPage, UpdateType.REMOVE);
    Entry tailEntry = dpExtra._entryView.demoteTail();
    dpExtra._totalEntrySize += tailEntry.size();
    dpExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;
    
    tailMain.setParentPage(dpMain._pageNumber, false);
  }
  
  /**
   * Makes the last normal entry of the given page the tail entry on that
   * page, done when there are multiple entries on a page and no tail entry.
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the page whose tail must be updated
   */
  private void promoteTail(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
    throws IOException
  {
    // there's not tail currently on this page, make last entry a tail
    DataPageMain dpMain = cacheDataPage._main;
    DataPageExtra dpExtra = cacheDataPage._extra;

    setModified(cacheDataPage);
    
    DataPageMain lastMain = dpMain.getChildPage(dpExtra._entryView.getLast());
    CacheDataPage lastDataPage = new CacheDataPage(lastMain);

    // move the "last" normal entry to the tail entry
    updateParentTail(cacheDataPage, lastDataPage, UpdateType.ADD);
    Entry lastEntry = dpExtra._entryView.promoteTail();
    dpExtra._totalEntrySize -= lastEntry.size();
    dpExtra._entryPrefix = EMPTY_PREFIX;

    lastMain.setParentPage(dpMain._pageNumber, true);
  }
  
  /**
   * Finds the index page on which the given entry does or should reside.
   *
   * @param e the entry to find
   */
  public CacheDataPage findCacheDataPage(Entry e)
    throws IOException
  {
    DataPageMain curPage = _rootPage;
    while(true) {

      if(curPage._leaf) {
        // nowhere to go from here
        return new CacheDataPage(curPage);
      }
      
      DataPageExtra extra = curPage.getExtra();

      // need to descend
      int idx = extra._entryView.find(e);
      if(idx < 0) {
        idx = missingIndexToInsertionPoint(idx);
        if(idx == extra._entryView.size()) {
          // just move to last child page
          --idx;
        }
      }

      Entry nodeEntry = extra._entryView.get(idx);
      curPage = curPage.getChildPage(nodeEntry);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Marks the given index page as modified and saves it for writing, if
   * necessary (if the page is already marked, does nothing).
   *
   * @param cacheDataPage the modified index page
   */
  private void setModified(CacheDataPage cacheDataPage)
  {
    if(!cacheDataPage._extra._modified) {
      _modifiedPages.add(cacheDataPage);
      cacheDataPage._extra._modified = true;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Finds the valid entry prefix given the first/last entries on an index
   * page.
   *
   * @param e1 the first entry on the page
   * @param e2 the last entry on the page
   *
   * @return a valid entry prefix for the page
   */
  private static byte[] findCommonPrefix(Entry e1, Entry e2)
  {
    byte[] b1 = e1.getEntryBytes();
    byte[] b2 = e2.getEntryBytes();
    
    int maxLen = b1.length;
    byte[] prefix = b1;
    if(b1.length > b2.length) {
      maxLen = b2.length;
      prefix = b2;
    }
    
    int len = 0;
    while((len < maxLen) && (b1[len] == b2[len])) {
      ++len;
    }
    
    if(len < prefix.length) {
      if(len == 0) {
        return EMPTY_PREFIX;
      }
      
      // need new prefix
      prefix = ByteUtil.copyOf(prefix, len);
    }

    return prefix;
  }

  /**
   * Used by unit tests to validate the internal status of the index.
   */
  void validate() throws IOException {
    // copy the values as the validation methods might trigger map updates
    for(DataPageMain dpMain : new ArrayList<DataPageMain>(_dataPages.values())) {
      DataPageExtra dpExtra = dpMain.getExtra();
      validateEntries(dpExtra);
      validateChildren(dpMain, dpExtra);
      validatePeers(dpMain);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Validates the entries for an index page
   *
   * @param dpExtra the entries to validate
   */
  private void validateEntries(DataPageExtra dpExtra) throws IOException {
    int entrySize = 0;
    Entry prevEntry = FIRST_ENTRY;
    for(Entry e : dpExtra._entries) {
      entrySize += e.size();
      if(prevEntry.compareTo(e) >= 0) {
        throw new IOException(withErrorContext(
                "Unexpected order in index entries, " + prevEntry + " >= " + e));
      }
      prevEntry = e;
    }
    if(entrySize != dpExtra._totalEntrySize) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
              "Expected size " + entrySize +
              " but was " + dpExtra._totalEntrySize));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Validates the children for an index page
   *
   * @param dpMain the index page
   * @param dpExtra the child entries to validate
   */
  private void validateChildren(DataPageMain dpMain,
                                DataPageExtra dpExtra) throws IOException {
    int childTailPageNumber = dpMain._childTailPageNumber;
    if(dpMain._leaf) {
      if(childTailPageNumber != INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                "Leaf page has tail " + dpMain));
      }
      return;
    }
    if((dpExtra._entryView.size() == 1) && dpMain.hasChildTail()) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
              "Single child is tail " + dpMain));
    }
    for(Entry e : dpExtra._entryView) {
      validateEntryForPage(dpMain, e);
      Integer subPageNumber = e.getSubPageNumber();
      DataPageMain childMain = _dataPages.get(subPageNumber);
      if(childMain != null) {
        if(childMain._parentPageNumber != null) {
          if(childMain._parentPageNumber != dpMain._pageNumber) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                    "Child's parent is incorrect " + childMain));
          }
          boolean expectTail = (subPageNumber == childTailPageNumber);
          if(expectTail != childMain._tail) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                    "Child tail status incorrect " + childMain));
          }
        }
        Entry lastEntry = childMain.getExtra()._entryView.getLast();
        if(e.compareTo(lastEntry) != 0) {
          throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                  "Invalid entry " + e + " but child is " + lastEntry));
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Validates the peer pages for an index page.
   *
   * @param dpMain the index page
   */
  private void validatePeers(DataPageMain dpMain) throws IOException {
    DataPageMain prevMain = _dataPages.get(dpMain._prevPageNumber);
    if(prevMain != null) {
      if(prevMain._nextPageNumber != dpMain._pageNumber) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                "Prev page " + prevMain + " does not ref " + dpMain));
      }
      validatePeerStatus(dpMain, prevMain);
    }
    
    DataPageMain nextMain = _dataPages.get(dpMain._nextPageNumber);
    if(nextMain != null) {
      if(nextMain._prevPageNumber != dpMain._pageNumber) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                "Next page " + nextMain + " does not ref " + dpMain));
      }
      validatePeerStatus(dpMain, nextMain);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Validates the given peer page against the given index page
   *
   * @param dpMain the index page
   * @param peerMain the peer index page
   */
  private void validatePeerStatus(DataPageMain dpMain, DataPageMain peerMain)
    throws IOException
  {
    if(dpMain._leaf != peerMain._leaf) {
      throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
              "Mismatched peer status " + dpMain._leaf + " " + peerMain._leaf));
    }
    if(!dpMain._leaf) {
      if((dpMain._parentPageNumber != null) &&
         (peerMain._parentPageNumber != null) &&
         ((int)dpMain._parentPageNumber != (int)peerMain._parentPageNumber)) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                "Mismatched node parents " + dpMain._parentPageNumber + " " +
                peerMain._parentPageNumber));
      }
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Collects all the cache pages in the cache.
   *
   * @param pages the List to update
   * @param dpMain the index page to collect
   */
  private List<Object> collectPages(List<Object> pages, DataPageMain dpMain) {
    try {
      CacheDataPage cacheDataPage = new CacheDataPage(dpMain);
      pages.add(cacheDataPage);
      if(!dpMain._leaf) {
        for(Entry e : cacheDataPage._extra._entryView) {
          DataPageMain childMain = dpMain.getChildPage(e);
          collectPages(pages, childMain);
        }
      }
    } catch(IOException e) {
      pages.add("DataPage[" + dpMain._pageNumber + "]: <" + e + ">");
    }
    return pages;
  }

  /**
   * Trims the size of the _dataPages cache appropriately (assuming caller has
   * already verified that the cache needs trimming).
   */
  private void purgeOldPages() {
    Iterator<DataPageMain> iter = _dataPages.values().iterator();
    while(iter.hasNext()) {
      DataPageMain dpMain = iter.next();
      // note, we never purge the root page
      if(dpMain != _rootPage) {
        iter.remove();
        if(_dataPages.size() <= MAX_CACHE_SIZE) {
          break;
        } 
      }
    }
  }
  
  @Override
  public String toString() {
    ToStringBuilder sb = CustomToStringStyle.builder(this);
    if(_rootPage == null) {
      sb.append("pages", "(uninitialized)");
    } else {    
      sb.append("pages", collectPages(new ArrayList<Object>(), _rootPage));
    }
    return sb.toString();
  }

  private String withErrorContext(String msg) {
    return _indexData.withErrorContext(msg);
  }
  

  /**
   * Keeps track of the main info for an index page.
   */
  private class DataPageMain
  {
    public final int _pageNumber;
    public Integer _prevPageNumber;
    public Integer _nextPageNumber;
    public Integer _childTailPageNumber;
    public Integer _parentPageNumber;
    public boolean _leaf;
    public boolean _tail;
    private Reference<DataPageExtra> _extra;

    private DataPageMain(int pageNumber) {
      _pageNumber = pageNumber;
    }

    public IndexPageCache getCache() {
      return IndexPageCache.this;
    }
    
    public boolean isRoot() {
      return(this == _rootPage);
    }
    
    public boolean isTail() throws IOException
    {
      resolveParent();
      return _tail;
    }

    public boolean hasChildTail() {
      return(_childTailPageNumber != INVALID_INDEX_PAGE_NUMBER);
    }

    public boolean isChildTailPageNumber(int pageNumber) {
      return(_childTailPageNumber == pageNumber);
    }
    
    public DataPageMain getParentPage() throws IOException
    {
      resolveParent();
      return IndexPageCache.this.getDataPage(_parentPageNumber);
    }

    public void initParentPage(Integer parentPageNumber, boolean isTail) {
      // only set if not already set
      if(_parentPageNumber == null) {
        setParentPage(parentPageNumber, isTail);
      }
    }
    
    public void setParentPage(Integer parentPageNumber, boolean isTail) {
      _parentPageNumber = parentPageNumber;
      _tail = isTail;
    }

    public DataPageMain getPrevPage() throws IOException
    {
      return IndexPageCache.this.getDataPage(_prevPageNumber);
    }
    
    public DataPageMain getNextPage() throws IOException
    {
      return IndexPageCache.this.getDataPage(_nextPageNumber);
    }
    
    public DataPageMain getChildPage(Entry e) throws IOException
    {
      Integer childPageNumber = e.getSubPageNumber();
      return getChildPage(childPageNumber,
                          isChildTailPageNumber(childPageNumber));
    }
    
    public DataPageMain getChildTailPage() throws IOException
    {
      return getChildPage(_childTailPageNumber, true);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a child page for the given page number, updating its parent
     * info if necessary.
     */
    private DataPageMain getChildPage(Integer childPageNumber, boolean isTail)
      throws IOException
    {
      DataPageMain child = getDataPage(childPageNumber);
      if(child != null) {
        // set the parent info for this child (if necessary)
        child.initParentPage(_pageNumber, isTail);
      }
      return child;
    }
    
    public DataPageExtra getExtra() throws IOException
    {
      DataPageExtra extra = _extra.get();
      if(extra == null) {
        extra = readDataPage(_pageNumber)._extra;
        setExtra(extra);
      }
      
      return extra;
    }
    
    public void setExtra(DataPageExtra extra) throws IOException
    {
      extra.setEntryView(this);
      _extra = new SoftReference<DataPageExtra>(extra);
    }

    private void resolveParent() throws IOException {
      if(_parentPageNumber == null) {
        // the act of searching for the last entry should resolve any parent
        // pages along the path
        findCacheDataPage(getExtra()._entryView.getLast());
        if(_parentPageNumber == null) {
          throw new IllegalStateException(withErrorContext(
                  "Parent was not resolved"));
        }
      }
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
      return (_leaf ? "Leaf" : "Node") + "DPMain[" + _pageNumber +
        "] " + _prevPageNumber + ", " + _nextPageNumber + ", (" +
        _childTailPageNumber + ")";
    }
  }

  /**
   * Keeps track of the extra info for an index page.  This info (if
   * unmodified) may be re-read from disk as necessary.
   */
  private static class DataPageExtra
  {
    /** sorted collection of index entries.  this is kept in a list instead of
        a SortedSet because the SortedSet has lame traversal utilities */
    public List<Entry> _entries;
    public EntryListView _entryView;
    public byte[] _entryPrefix;
    public int _totalEntrySize;
    public boolean _modified;

    private DataPageExtra()
    {
    }

    public void setEntryView(DataPageMain main) throws IOException {
      _entryView = new EntryListView(main, this);
    }
    
    public void updateEntryPrefix() {
      if(_entryPrefix.length == 0) {
        // prefix is only related to *real* entries, tail not included
        _entryPrefix = findCommonPrefix(_entries.get(0),
                                        _entries.get(_entries.size() - 1));
      }
    }
    
    @Override
    public String toString() {
      return CustomToStringStyle.builder("DPExtra")
        .append(null, _entryView)
        .toString();
    }
  }

  /**
   * IndexPageCache implementation of an Index {@link DataPage}.
   */
  private static final class CacheDataPage extends DataPage
  {
    public final DataPageMain _main;
    public final DataPageExtra _extra;

    private CacheDataPage(DataPageMain dataPage) throws IOException {
      this(dataPage, dataPage.getExtra());
    }
    
    private CacheDataPage(DataPageMain dataPage, DataPageExtra extra) {
      _main = dataPage;
      _extra = extra;
    }

    @Override
    public int getPageNumber() {
      return _main._pageNumber;
    }
    
    @Override
    public boolean isLeaf() {
      return _main._leaf;
    }

    @Override
    public void setLeaf(boolean isLeaf) {
      _main._leaf = isLeaf;
    }


    @Override
    public int getPrevPageNumber() {
      return _main._prevPageNumber;
    }

    @Override
    public void setPrevPageNumber(int pageNumber) {
      _main._prevPageNumber = pageNumber;
    }

    @Override
    public int getNextPageNumber() {
      return _main._nextPageNumber;
    }

    @Override
    public void setNextPageNumber(int pageNumber) {
      _main._nextPageNumber = pageNumber;
    }

    @Override
    public int getChildTailPageNumber() {
      return _main._childTailPageNumber;
    }

    @Override
    public void setChildTailPageNumber(int pageNumber) {
      _main._childTailPageNumber = pageNumber;
    }

    
    @Override
    public int getTotalEntrySize() {
      return _extra._totalEntrySize;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTotalEntrySize(int totalSize) {
      _extra._totalEntrySize = totalSize;
    }

    @Override
    public byte[] getEntryPrefix() {
      return _extra._entryPrefix;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEntryPrefix(byte[] entryPrefix) {
      _extra._entryPrefix = entryPrefix;
    }


    @Override
    public List<Entry> getEntries() {
      return _extra._entries;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEntries(List<Entry> entries) {
      _extra._entries = entries;
    }

    @Override
    public void addEntry(int idx, Entry entry) throws IOException {
      _main.getCache().addEntry(this, idx, entry);
    }
    
    @Override
    public Entry removeEntry(int idx) throws IOException {
      return _main.getCache().removeEntry(this, idx);
    }
    
  }

  /**
   * A view of an index page's entries which combines the normal entries and
   * tail entry into one collection.
   */
  private static class EntryListView extends AbstractList<Entry>
    implements RandomAccess
  {
    private final DataPageExtra _extra;
    private Entry _childTailEntry;

    private EntryListView(DataPageMain main, DataPageExtra extra)
      throws IOException
    {
      if(main.hasChildTail()) {
        _childTailEntry = main.getChildTailPage().getExtra()._entryView
          .getLast().asNodeEntry(main._childTailPageNumber);
      }
      _extra = extra;
    }

    private List<Entry> getEntries() {
      return _extra._entries;
    }
    
    @Override
    public int size() {
      int size = getEntries().size();
      if(hasChildTail()) {
        ++size;
      }
      return size;
    }

    @Override
    public Entry get(int idx) {
      return (isCurrentChildTailIndex(idx) ?
              _childTailEntry :
              getEntries().get(idx));
    }

    @Override
    public Entry set(int idx, Entry newEntry) {
      return (isCurrentChildTailIndex(idx) ?
              setChildTailEntry(newEntry) :
              getEntries().set(idx, newEntry));
    }
    
    @Override
    public void add(int idx, Entry newEntry) {
      // note, we will never add to the "tail" entry, that will always be
      // handled through promoteTail
      getEntries().add(idx, newEntry);
    }
    
    @Override
    public Entry remove(int idx) {
      return (isCurrentChildTailIndex(idx) ?
              setChildTailEntry(null) :
              getEntries().remove(idx));
    }
    
    public Entry setChildTailEntry(Entry newEntry) {
      Entry old = _childTailEntry;
      _childTailEntry = newEntry;
      return old;
    }
    
    private boolean hasChildTail() {
      return(_childTailEntry != null);
    }
    
    private boolean isCurrentChildTailIndex(int idx) {
      return(idx == getEntries().size());
    }

    public Entry getLast() {
      return(hasChildTail() ? _childTailEntry :
             (!getEntries().isEmpty() ?
              getEntries().get(getEntries().size() - 1) : null));
    }

    public Entry demoteTail() {
      Entry tail = _childTailEntry;
      _childTailEntry = null;
      getEntries().add(tail);
      return tail;
    }
    
    public Entry promoteTail() {
      Entry last = getEntries().remove(getEntries().size() - 1);
      _childTailEntry = last;
      return last;
    }
    
    public int find(Entry e) {
      return Collections.binarySearch(this, e);
    }

  }

}